Please add more about Asteraceae here!
- Daisy family, formerly Compositae
For more information
Here is EcoReality's seed inventory for Asteraceae:
|ID||common name||family||latin name||date||quantity||action||days to germ||propagation||days to maturity||habitat||sun||drainage||soil||inventory||notes||nutrients||needs||use|
|14||Arnica, Meadow||Asteraceae||Arnica chamissonis||2013-04-19 00:00:00||89 each seeds in 8cc blocks||plant||21||Standard flower seed planting method, where the seeds are pressed into spongy potting soil and kept evenly moist and cool until germination, which occurs in a couple of weeks. Work up in pots and plant out to 6 inch spacing.
Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in pots outdoors. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification is helpful. The fresh seed can germinate in 3 - 4 weeks at 13°c according to one report, though it can be slow, difficult and erratic and take 2 years to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions in the following spring.
Division in spring.Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. One report says that it is often found in calcareous soils in the wild. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.8 to 7.6. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat. Prefers a position in full sun. Succeeds in light woodland and in a rock garden or border. Plants are hardy to about -25°c.
|Planted in loose, acidic loam soil, and given a sunny and moist position, this plant will make a carpet of live roots within a couple of years. Highly florific when happy.||sun or partial shade||moist||rich||50 each||Hardy to all temperate zones, especially at elevation.
Creeping alpine herbaceous perennial native to the American Mountain West.
Arnica is a botanical treasure that we treat with reverence. Meadow Arnica is medicinally interchangeable with Arnica Montana, is less elevation dependent than Arnica montana, and yields well from multiple flower stalks.
Arnica has a long history of herbal use, especially as an external treatment for bruises and sprains - it is an ingredient of a number of proprietary preparations.
Internally, it has been used in the treatment of heart complaints and as a booster for the immune system. Arnica increases local blood supply and accelerates healing, it is anti-inflammatory and increases the rate of absorption of internal bleeding. Generally the plant is nowadays only recommended for internal use as a homeopathic medicine, principally for treating shock, injury and pain.
If used as a decoction or tincture it stimulates the circulation and is valuable in the treatment of angina and a weak or failing heart, but it can be toxic even at quite low doses and so is rarely used this way.
The flowers are the part most commonly used, they are harvested when fully open and dried - the receptacles are sometimes removed since these are liable to be attacked by insects. The root is also used, it is harvested after the leaves have died down in the autumn and dried for later use.
Although a very valuable remedy, it should be used with caution. It has been known to cause contact dermatitis when used externally and collapse when taken internally. Only take it internally under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.
The freshly crushed flowers cause sneezing if inhaled. The leaves have also been smoked as a tobacco, though it is unclear whether this was for medicinal reasons.
The whole plant, harvested when in flower, is used in homeopathic remedies. It is especially useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries, sores and bruises. The homeopathic dose has also been used effectively in the treatment of epilepsy and seasickness, and it might be of use as a hair growth stimulant.The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Arnica montana for fever and colds, inflammation of the skin, cough/bronchitis, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, rheumatism, common cold, blunt injuries, tendency to infection. The essential oil has to be diluted before being used externally.
|Antiecchymotic, Antiphlogistic, Homeopathy, Nervine, Sternutatory, Vulnerary|
|90||Artichoke, Green Globe||Asteraceae||Cynara cardunculus||2012-04-04 00:00:00||21 each seeds in 8cc blocks||plant||10||It takes some work and a lot of patience to grow artichokes from seed, but it's worth the effort. Commercial culture is limited to warm areas hardiness zone 7 and above. Artichokes require good soil, regular watering and feeding, plus frost protection in winter. Before frost, cut back to 15cm (6") tall and mulch with soil, straw or leaves to keep the root from freezing. Uncover in April. Offshoots of these plants should be set out in the spring, so that the older plants can be replaced after a few years.
Start indoors in late January to early February under bright lights.
Sow 2 seeds per pot, 5mm (¼") deep. Keep moist in a warm place until seeds germinate in 10 to 21 days. Transplant seedlings into the garden 2 weeks after the last average frost date for your area. Artichokes need a cool period (250 hours) below 10°C (50°F) to induce flowering, but will not survive hard frost. Space plants 1m (3') apart. Seeds can also be germinated between damp sheets of paper towel.In optimum conditions at least 70% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 1 year.
|150||Ideal pH: 5.6-6.6. Select a sunny, sheltered location with well-draining soil. Dig in lots of compost or rotted manure and add half to 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer per plant. On the coast, with protective mulch, these plants may overwinter. In late October cut back to 15cm (6") tall, and mulch well with straw, soil, leaves, or burlap, to keep the roots from freezing. Uncover in April.||full sun||well drained||2 grams||Green Globe artichokes grow on such attractive plants that they are often found in the flower garden. A little patience is needed but the wait is worthwhile. A rich and deeply dug soil is required for the plants to produce their best heads. Starting in March or April, sow seed outdoors 1.5cm (0.5") deep in a seedbed and transplant to the permanent position when seedlings are large enough to handle. Water well. Allow 2-3ft between plants as they will eventually reach a height of 5ft. Young plants produce their best heads in the second year of cropping and become more prolific each year. To cook, rinse thoroughly under a tap and remove the pointed tips. Boil in salty water for 20-40 minutes until tender. Drain upside down and serve hot with melted butter or Hollandaise sauce.||Antioxidants, Chromium, Fibre: Non-Soluble, Folate, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorous, Vitamin C||Food|
|24||Echinacea; Purple Coneflower||Asteraceae||Echinacea purpurea||Sow seed in the early spring in flats outdoors or in the greenhouse, and transplant seedlings out to the garden or field in mid-spring (middle of May in our area). Starting earlier, and transplanting twice into progressively bigger containers will result in a much better rooted transplant, which will probably flower in the first year. It is fairly easy to seed this plant directly in the garden or field. Sow the seed shallowly in the early to mid-spring. Keep moist. Once the plants are up, you must stay on top of the weeds, and thin to 1 foot spacing after the second set of leaves has formed. E. purpurea likes full sun, plenty of water, and rich, limey soil. This is the species best suited to varied growing conditions, whether coastal or mountain, east or west. It is easy to grow, and produces on the average 1/2 pound of fresh root by the dormant period following the second year of growth. Plant 1 foot apart. Flowers 3 to 4 feet tall.||Does well in pots.||full sun||moist||200 each||Hardy to all temperate zones.
Herbaceous perennial prairie dweller. Originally native to a wide band stretching from Michigan south to Louisiana, then west to Texas and Oklahoma, but currently uncommon in the wild. Widely cultivated. Does well in pots. Our strain was derived from a rare wild collection and has been successfully and profitably cultivated for years here in the Williams Valley of Southern Oregon. It has not been intentionally modified or hybridized in any way from the original source, and therefore contains the rich spectrum of active chemicals found in the original wild plant.
Medical activity as per E. angustifolia.
On a plant-protection note, please consider that growing and using E. purpurea also takes the strain off wild populations of E. angustifolia.
Some discussion on using Echinacea in herbal therapy:
I find personally that the herb works best as a tincture of the fresh root, used at first sign of the common cold, flu, or indeed any kind of infection. The public wisdom is that Echinacea stimulates the immune system, and that this is the mode of action. The herb almost certainly stimulates the activity of the macrophages and killer T cells as it speeds the bodie's recognition of antigens. According to my teacher (may he rest in peace) Michael Moore, who seemed to have a knack for recognizing these things, the use of Echinacea in the early stages of (any) infection speeds the body response by 24 hours. That means that the use of Echinacea should shorten the period of infection (ie how long you have a cold) by 24 hours. Or, if used quickly enough and in large enough doses, it may keep you from getting sick. "Ward off contagion," as the ancients used to say. A headcold is the inflammation of the sinus membrane -- if you can reduce that inflammation with Echinacea (and snort a little dilute goldenseal tincture, too, for that matter) then you can convince yourself, perhaps, that you don't have a cold at all. Or reduce the symptoms, anyway. Increase the comfort factor.
Regarding the "hyaluronidase effect," Echinacea seems to clarify the interstitial fluids, softening the cartilage, helping remove metabolic waste products by way of the lymph. Echinacea can also be used for treating stretched ligaments and inflamed joints (tendonitis, for example). Generally in this case a high dosage is prescribed, and the use of the joint in question is limited, and the pain and inflammation is reduced.
As for using Echinacea if you have Aids or are HIV positive or suffer from any other autoimmune disease, then be careful, as Echinacea can exaggerate acute autoimmune episodes.Echinacea tincture can be mixed with ground pharmaceutical grade charcoal and clay and applied to insect stings to help resolve them more quickly. This is a usage well documented in the Native American ethnologies. And, you can use it for treating brown recluse bites -- it will help limit erosion of healthy tissue and necrosis.
|29||Feverfew||Asteraceae||Tanacetum parthenium||2012-04-07 00:00:00||234 each seeds in 8cc blocks||plant||100 each||This is a selection made for high medicinal activity and each flower is encircled by only one layer of ray flowers (as per photo). It is not frilly, double-flowered or variegated. Our strain has become the standard strain for extraction among a number of the bigger companies in the US and abroad.||Febrifuge|
|35||Gumweed; Grindelia||Asteraceae||Grindelia integrifolia||21||Sow seeds in spring. Use fast-draining mix, or direct seed. Sow barely below soil surface and tamp well, then keep warm, in the light and evenly moist until germination, which takes about three weeks, quicker or slower depending on soil temperature. Individuate to pots and transplant, or thin to 1 to 2 feet apart.||Plant prefers full sun and dryish, well-drained soils.||seasonal flooding||garden||100 each||Bushy herbaceous perennial to 3 feet tall. Native to the mountains and deserts of western North America. The several species are medicinally interchangeable. This plant thrives roadside, in sandy areas seasonally flooded, in grasslands on dry slopes, in waste places, rock garden, or regualr garden soil outside the reach of sprinkler. Sand mulch for best results. In colder zones, may be grown as an annual, or may become perennial, dying back to the root. If your zone is too cold to support overwintering, be reassured that this is a reasonably dependable self-seeder. In warmer zones, the plant will produce a thick, rubbery, perennial stem that may be crowned by a rosette of green leaves, and gives rise, in season, to more stems, followed by bright golden yellow flowers, flattened, about the size of quarters, which give way to the soft green cauldron filled with balsamic oleo-gum-resin (as per photo). This is the stage when the plant is at its highest medicinal activity, and the best medicines are made from these "buds", picked when filled with resin, and carefully dried (although they will try to stick together), then extracted with strong alcohol, or made into a tea. One of the better herbal treatments for asthma, the plant opens the bronchial passages, soothes tortured mucosa and slows and deepens the breathing. The tincture can also be applied topically, helping alleviate the itch of poison oak/ivy and speeding the healing.||Bronchiodilator|
|251||Jerusalem Artichoke||Asteraceae||Helianthus tuberosus||0 each||Food, Forage|
|309||Lettuce, Amish Deer Tongue||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||4||Normally sown outdoors April-July or indoors February-March and again in August-September. Indoors sow 3-4 seeds every 3cm, transplant after two weeks. Outdoors so seed 2cm apart in short rows 45cm apart. Cover lightly. Space plants 25cm apart. Keep well watered.||31||A terrific heirloom variety that holds up well in the heat. Dark green triangular leaves cover a crunchy heart. Dates back to 1840.|
|198||Lettuce, Butterhead||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||2012-04-03 00:00:00||196 each seeds in 8cc blocks||plant||4||50||0 each||Delicate and beautiful apple green, buttery leaves with bright red specks. Elegant for presentation, spectacular baby leaf, the tender heart is delicious.||Food|
|199||Lettuce, Looseleaf Brunia||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||4||74||700 each||A French heritage oaklead variety with long, slender and graceful leaves. Excellent for cut and ocme again use, its colours improves in cool weather.||Food|
|307||Lettuce, Looseleaf Grand Rapids||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||4||Sow directly outside in spring, 1.3cm deem and 2.5cm apart. Thin to 20cm when 6cm tall.||45||A French heritage oaklead variety with long, slender and graceful leaves. Excellent for cut and ocme again use, its colours improves in cool weather.|
|201||Lettuce, Looseleaf Red Sails||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||2012-03-30 00:00:00||400 each seeds in 8cc blocks||plant||4||Sow outdoors April-July or start indoors 3-4 seeds every 3cm, transplant after 2 weeks, 25cm apart.||66||full sun||moist||0 each||The eaasiest to grow! Pick individual leaves daily, or harvest the whole head at once.
Lettuce is normally sown outdoors April-July. Cold frames allow you to snow in Feb-March and again in August/September. Seeding: Indoors sow 3-4 seeds every 3cm in sterile planting mix. Transplant after 2 weeks. Outdoors sow seed 2cm apart in short rows 45cm apart. Cover lightly. Space plants 25cm apart. Growing: 1cup of complete organic fertilizer per 3m of row will be adequate. Keep well watered for sweet leaves.Seed specs: Canada #1 germination standard 70%
|200||Lettuce, Speckled butterhead||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||2013-04-15 00:00:00||180 each seeds in 8cc blocks||50% germ||4||0 each||Food|
|202||Lettuce, Winter density||Asteraceae||Lactuca sativa||2012-04-13 00:00:00||400 each in 8cc blocks||50% germ||4||Seeding: directly seed 2cm apart in short rows and thin to the final spacing. Growing: Thin or transplant loose-leaf type to stand 20-25cm apart. Heading types should stand about 30cm apart. Lettuce rows can be 45cm apart. Water regularly to prevent leaves from getting bitter. Soil with lots of organic matter that drains freely is best.||65||Lettuce grows best in cool weather, during the spring and fall. Start in April and plant every 2-3 weeks for continuous harvest. Mid-August plantings can stretch the harvest into winter.||280 each||Food|
|250||Marigold, Harlequin||Asteraceae||Calendula officinalis||2013-03-25 00:00:00||40 each seeds in 8cc blocks||50% germ||0 each||Insect Repellant, Ornamental|
|242||Milk thistle||Asteraceae||Silybum marianum||0 each||Iron||Forage, Galactogogue|
|54||Mugwort, Common; Ai-ye||Asteraceae||Aremisia vulgaris||2013-04-27 00:00:00||other||7||Sow very tiny seeds on surface and tamp in securely. Keep evenly moist until germination, which takes 1 to 3 weeks. Plant 2 feet apart.||Prefers sun to part shade and will grow in gravel, waste places or regular garden soil. Grows 3 to 4 feet tall.||sun or partial shade||100 each||Hardiness: All temperate zones. Herbaceous perennial, a vigorous spreader and self-seeder. Plant has soft leaves, pleasantly downy on the undersides. The herb is used to make Moxa, burned over acupuncture points to quicken the blood. Dream-inducer (dried leaf used to stuff pillows).||Oneirogen|
|55||Mugwort, Western; White Sagebrush||Asteraceae||Artemisia ludoviciana||7||Sow in spring. Press hard into surface and keep moist until germ. Germination note on this seed: My trials showed a very high rate of germination (no, I didn't try to count those little specks -- what do you think, I have the eyes of a 20 year old? At this age, you learn to trust intuition more than vision...) in 7 days at 65 degrees F. Develop quickly from green specks to respectable seedlings. Very excited about having them.||Plant prefers full sun to part shade and will thrive in dry, depleted soils.||sun or partial shade||well drained||Patch-forming herbaceous perennial native to western and central US.The softly silvery-white and aromatic leaves give rise to dangling flowers of yellow. Used extensively by the Native Americans and currently much valued by local herbalists in the form of tea, spice, poultice and snuff. The plant is astringent, deodorant and very friendly to the touch—used in treating eczema, spider bite, stomachache, and menstrual woes.||Astringent, Seasoning|
|61||Pyrethrum; Painted Daisy||Asteraceae||Chrysanthemum coccineum||Plant prefers full sun, much water and regular garden soil. Flowers 2 to 3 feet tall.||full sun||moist||50 each||Perennial, flowering in the second year and thereafter. Native to western asia and Iran. Flowers of absolute pink, red and white are excellent for cutting. The buds are dried and ground into insect powder, often used against fleas. The active principles are monoterpenes known as pyrethrins.||Insect Repellant, Veterinary|
|303||Shungiku, Tong Ho, edible chrysanthemum||Asteraceae||Chrysanthemum coronarium||Direct seed to garden: early spring, late spring, summer, fall.|
|68||Stevia; Yerba Dulce; Sweet Herb||Asteraceae||Stevia rebaudiana||7||Heat-dependent germinator does best if sown just under the surface, tamped well, kept evenly moist and in direct sun or under lights or in a greenhouse with temperatures from 80 to 85 degrees F. Germination in 1 to 2 weeks. Protect from slugs, which like the sweetness about as well as any other beast. Prick seedlings into gallon pots or transplant out to garden at about 1 foot spacing in the temperate north and about 2 foot spacing in warmer zones.||Plants thrive in rich garden soil, and also they do very well in pots. Tend to get a bit leggy so cut them back to encourage lower branch growth. Plants prefer full sun to part shade and humidity, and plenty of water.||sun or partial shade||moist||rich||25 each||Tender herbaceous perennial in the temperate north and evergreen subshrub in warmer climates (zone 9 and up). May be effectively grown as an annual. Native to Paraguay and Brazil.
The dried leaf is used for sweetening drinks and is purportedly 250 times sweeter than sugar.Medicinally, stevia is used as a flavoring agent, a wound healer, a treatment for hypoglycemia, and a digestive aid.
|71||Sunflower, Fat Mama||Asteraceae||Helianthus annuus||Direct seed in the garden after the soil has warmed up in the spring or early summer. Put sunflowers to the back, as they tend to block access if you put them right in front. You can plant scarlet emperor beans at the same time, and they will run up the stalks. Normally sunflowers are thinned to at least a foot between each plant, and the rows are spaced about 3 feet apart. The fat mama under the right conditions will grow to 9 feet tall.||full sun||moist||50 each||Tall, single-flowered sunflowers with fat heads bearing striped seeds that are the best kind for eating and for feeding to birds. These can also be used for making sunflower oil.
This is one of the best oil plants that can be easily grown by gardeners in the temperate north. Native American peoples extracted the oil by boiling the seeds in large pots, whereupon the oil rose to the surface of the water and could be skimmed off. Think about it. How would you do in your household without cooking oil? It's an ancient commodity, and it behooves us to maintain the ability and the right to make our own.Of course, all this reductionist information should be taken with a grain of salt -- you can just grow 1 sunflower if you want -- you don't have to put them in rows -- and you can plant them closer together or further apart if you want -- it doesn't matter too much -- and you may find that if you've got great sun and plenty of water and a fertile soil that they top out at 12 feet, or if the soil is poor, with scant water or in the shade, then they may never do too much at all, in which case it might be more productive to just eat the sprouts than to expect a big sunflower. But all in all, these are super duper easy to grow, a good subject for kid's gardens or the kid in all of us, and given reasonable conditions you can expect very impressive results!
|Fat, Protein||Phosphorous||Food, Forage, Insectiary, Ornamental|
|70||Sunflower, Hopi Black Dye; Black Oil Sunflower||Asteraceae||Helianthus annuus||Horizon Herbs recommends direct-seeding in the spring. Plant a bit close at first, protect from crows, and eat the sprouts. Thin to 2 feet apart.||90||full sun||30 each||90-100 days to maturity. Generally single-headed although occasionally poly-headed, the plants are sturdy of stem and consistently dark black of seed. The ray flowers are golden yellow.
The seeds are used by Native Americans for dyeing wool and basketry. Imparts a color-fast light purple. Heirloom variety from Hopi Land, an oil, food, and dye plant that has its roots in ancient prehistory. One of the first domesticated plants, archaeological evidence points to the middle archaic period for the first human harboring of sunflower. The black seeded sunflowers are generally considered to be best for oil, while the striped sunflowers are considered to be best for direct consumption. However, I do admit that I ate the germ test! The seeds are very rich in oil. Native americans ground the seeds and boiled, then skimmed the oil. In native culture, vegetable oil is considered one of the most precious of substances. Also, the seeds are very good for eating, and the sprouts are potently delicious and healing to digestive woes.Please plant Hopi black dye sunflowers -- this heirloom variety is endangered by all the new polyhead sunflowers that are being developed for selling as pretty flowers in farmer's markets. This one is just as pretty, and it is much more useful.
|Fat, Protein||Phosphorous||Dye, Food, Forage, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental|
|246||Sunflowers, unknown variety||Asteraceae||Helianthus annuus||Start seeds indoors mid-March or outdoors mid-April to mid-May. Plant 3 cm deep, 15 cm apart.||Cultivated Beds;||sun or partial shade||moist||0 each||Fat, Phosphorous, Protein||Food, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental|
|282||Wormwood||Asteraceae||Artemisia absinthium||2013-04-26 00:00:00||100 each seeds in 8cc blocks||plant||180||Seed: surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates within 2 - 26 weeks at 15°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. They can be planted out in the summer, or kept in pots in a cold frame for the winter and then planted out in the spring.
Cuttings: half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.
Division: in spring or autumn.Succeeds in any soil, but best in poor, dry, warm soil, which also promotes longevity and aroma.
|sun or partial shade||well drained||poor||0 each||Inhibits growth of fennel, sage, caraway, anise, and most young plants, especially in wet years [14, 18, 20].
Good companion to carrots, protecting them from root fly.
Deerproof, attracts dogs.
Fresh or dried shoots repel insects and mice. An infusion discourages slugs and insects.
Valued especially for its tonic effect on the liver, gallbladder and digestive system, and for its vermicidal activity[4, 238, 254].
Extremely useful medicine for those with weak and under-active digestion. It increases stomach acid and bile production, improving digestion and the absorption of nutrients. It also eases wind and bloating and, if taken regularly, helps the body return to full vitality after a prolonged illness.
The leaves and flowering shoots are anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitumor, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypnotic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge[4, 9, 21, 46, 165, 222, 254].
Harvested as it is coming into flower and then dried for later use. Use with caution, the plant should be taken internally in small doses for short-term treatment only, preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. It should not be prescribed for children or pregnant women.
The extremely bitter leaves are chewed to stimulate the appetite. The bitter taste on the tongue sets off a reflex action, stimulating stomach and other digestive secretions.
Leaves have been used with some success in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
Applied externally to bruises and bites. A warm compress has been used to ease sprains and strained muscles.A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves. It is used to stimulate bile and gastric juice production and to treat disorders of the liver and gall bladder.
|Anthelmintic, Antiinflammatory, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Carminative, Cholagogue, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Flavouring, Fragrance, Homeopathy, Hypnotic, Insect Repellant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Strewing, Tonic, Vermifuge, Veterinary|
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