Plant used for/Ornamental

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Please add more about plants that are used for Ornamental here!

Ornamental
Flowers and landscape plants.

For more information

Inventory

Here is EcoReality's seed inventory for plants that are used as Ornamental:

IDcommon namefamilylatin namedatequantityactiondays to germpropagationdays to maturityhabitatsundrainagesoilinventorynotesnutrientsneedsuse
13Angelica Tree, JapaneseAraliaceaeAralia elata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-22 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant30Soak berries overnight, then smash them (it's easy) and float off the fruit and plant the seeds. Sow seeds in the fall to early spring. Slow and spotty germ is normal, so do not prematurely discard flats.

Seed best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 - 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 - 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this.

Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage.

Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Prefers a good deep loam and a position in semi-shade but it also succeeds in a sunny position. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown on poorer soils. Prefers an acid soil. Dormant plants are hardy to at least -15°c. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun.

A very ornamental species, there are a number of named varieties. It is usually a single stemmed shrub, spreading by means of suckers. This species is closely allied to A. chinensis.
Plant prefers full sun to part shade and moist soils.sun or partial shademoistpoor100 eachHardiness: All temperate zones.

Deciduous perennial shrub to small tree native to China. Highly ornamental, with narrow compound leaves and masses of fragrant, white flowers. Leaves turn bright red in the fall.

Widely used in native medicine, the plant is known to treat everything from coughs to cancer.
Anodyne, Antitussive, Cancer, Carminative, Food, Ornamental
248Butterfly Weed; Pleurisy RootApocynaceaeAsclepias tuberosa (dg fo pf wp)30Seed best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn or in late winter. We have also had good results from sowing the seed in the greenhouse in early spring, though stored seed might need 2 - 3 weeks cold stratification. Germination usually takes place in 1 - 3 months at 18°c. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out when they are in active growth in late spring or early summer and give them some protection from slugs until they are growing away strongly.

Division in spring. With great care since the plant resents root disturbance. Pot the divisions up and place them in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse until they are growing away strongly, then plant them out in the summer, giving them some protection from slugs until they are established.

Basal cuttings in late spring. Use shoots about 10cm long with as much of their white underground stem as possible. Pot them up individually and place them in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse until they are rooting and growing actively. If the plants grow sufficiently, they can be put into their permanent positions in the summer, otherwise keep them in the greenhouse until the following spring and when they are in active growth plant them out into their permanent positions. Give them some protection from slugs until they are established.

Prefers a well-drained light, rich or peaty soil. Prefers a sandy soil and a sunny position. Prefers a slightly acid soil. Prefers a dry soil. Plants are hardy to about -20°c.

Plants should be pot-grown from seed and planted out in their permanent positions when young. Plants are particularly at risk from slugs, however, and some protection will probably be required until the plants are established and also in the spring when the new shoots come into growth. The flower can trap insects between its anther cells, the struggles of the insect in escaping ensure the pollination of the plant.
sun or partial shadewell drainedrich0 each*Flower buds - cooked. They taste somewhat like peas.
  • Young shoots - cooked. An asparagus substitute.
  • The tips of older shoots are cooked like spinach.
  • Young seed pods - cooked. Harvested when 3 - 4 cm long and before the seed floss begins to form, they are very appetizing.
  • The flower clusters can be boiled down to make a sugary syrup. In hot weather the flowers produce so much nectar that it crystallises out into small lumps which can be eaten like sweets, they are delicious.
  • Root - cooked. A nutty flavour. Some reports say that it is poisonous.
  • An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The seed is very small, however, and commercial usage would not be very viable.

Pleurisy root is a bitter, nutty-flavoured tonic herb that increases perspiration, relieves spasms and acts as an expectorant. It was much used by the North American Indians and acquired a reputation as a heal-all amongst the earlier white settlers. Its main use in present day herbalism is for relieving the pain and inflammation of pleurisy. The root was very popular as a medicinal herb for the treatment of a range of lung diseases, it was considered especially useful as an expectorant.

It has also been used internally with great advantage in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism etc. Use with caution; this remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women.

The root is harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried. A poultice of the dried, powdered roots is used in the treatment of swellings, bruises, wounds, ulcers, lameness etc.
Antispasmodic, Carminative, Cathartic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Insectiary, Latex, Oil, Ornamental, Pollution, Poultice, Stuffing, Sweetening, Tonic, Vasodilator
249CamasHyacinthaceaeCamassia quamash (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood, Ornamental
19Cohosh, BlackRanunculaceaeCimicifuga racemosa (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:00208 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow in fall for germination in first or second spring, or give 3 months warm followed by 3 months cold followed by warm again. If this scenario is followed, germ then occurs in warm soil in 1-2 weeks. Work seedlings up in pots in the shadehouse for a year or two before transplanting out. A long-lived plant, development is slow at first, but given adequate compost and moisture during the growing season, monumental individuals can eventually be achieved.Plant prefers edge of forest or shade garden. Black Cohosh withstands more shade than most forest-dependent plants, and if the seedlings are worked up for several years until they are quite large, then you can even plant it in the open garden with good results.full shade100 each(Recently re-classified as Actaea racemosa*)

Perennial, native to the Eastern Forest biome in the US. Hardy to all temperate zones. One of the best and most robust of herbal landscape plants. Striking foliage and tall white racemes.

The tincture of fresh root is antidepressant, pain relieving, sedative, peripheral vasodilating, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory, specific for treating tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and is customarily used to control the infamous "hot flashes" of menopause.

  • but we are not using this nomenclature and indeed do not agree with it. Actea is the baneberry genus, and as the name implies plants within this genus should bear BERRIES. Black cohosh is correctly put in the Cimicifuga genus as, consistent with other members of Cimicifuga, it bears its seeds in a FOLLICLE (not a berry for goodness sakes!).
Analgesic, Antidepressant, Antiinflammatory, Antispasmodic, Ornamental, Sedative, Vasodilator
3Dang-gui; Tang-kuei; Dong-quaiApiaceaeAngelica sinensis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:00116 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow seed in fall or early spring, on surface of soil, and press in well, and keep moist until germination. Cold soil germinator. Very trustworthy seed.

Seed best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe since the seed only has a short viability. Seed can also be sown in the spring, though germination rates will be lower. It requires light for germination. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in the spring. The seed can also be sow in situ as soon as it is ripe.

Requires a deep moist fertile soil in dappled shade or full sun. This species is not fully hardy in colder areas, tolerating temperatures down to at least -5°c. Plants are reliably perennial if they are prevented from setting seed.
Plant prefers part shade and moist soils.sun or partial shademoistgardenHardy to all temperate zones. Herbaceous monocarp native to China. Deeply cut leaves unfold from the meaty crown, subtended by the characteristically smoky smelling root, giving rise to the flowers that unfold and adorn the plant in late fall and sometimes make their seed after winter has commenced.

One of the most useful women's herbs of all times -- balances and regulates hormones. Dang Gui is a well-known Chinese herb that has been used in the treatment of female ailments for thousands of years. Its reputation is perhaps second only to ginseng (Panax ginseng) and it is particularly noted for its 'blood tonic' effects on women.

The root has a sweet pungent aroma that is very distinctive and it is often used in cooking, which is the best way to take it as a blood tonic. One report says that the root contains vitamin B12 and can be used in the treatment of pernicious anaemia. It is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of women's complaints where it regulates the menstrual cycle and relieves period pain and also to ensure a healthy pregnancy and easy delivery.

However conflicting information suggests it should not be used during pregnancy and should not be used if menstrual flow is heavy or during menstration. It is an ideal tonic for women with heavy menstruation who risk becoming anaemic. The water-soluble and non-volatile elements of the root increase the contraction of the uterus whilst the volatile elements can relax the muscle of the uterus. Its use prevents the decrease of liver glycogen and protects the liver. Used for menopausal symptoms (hot flushes).

It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of various bacteria including Bacillus dysenteriae, Bacillus typhi, B. comma, B. cholerae and haemolytic streptococci.

The root is an ingredient of 'Four Things Soup', the most widely used woman's tonic in China. The other species used are Rehmannia glutinosa, Ligusticum wallichii and Paeonia lactiflora.

The root is harvested in the autumn or winter and dried for later use. It has been used to treat pulmonary hypertension in combination with the allopathic medication nifedipine. Other uses include: constipation (a laxative), trauma injuries, ulcers, rheumatism and malaria.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)Alterative, Analgesic, Anticholesterolemic, Antiinflammatory, Antispasmodic, Deobstruent, Emollient, Hepatic, Laxative, Ornamental, Seasoning, Sedative, Vasodilator
1Dragon TreeAgavaceaeDracaena draco (dg fo pf wp)30Scarify the large, roundish seeds by rubbing on medium grit sandpaper and plant 1/2 to 1 inch deep in warm Cactus mix. Tamp well and keep evenly moist but not too wet. Best to sow in a greenhouse or under grow lights. Planting seeds such as this in a bed in the summer garden would be a bit absurd, I think. Plant at least 3 seeds per pot. Bottom heat is helpful. Germ takes 30 to 90 days, and this seed demonstrates ongoing germ. Keep plants in potted culture (the photo is of one of my year-old individuals) or if environment permits, plant outdoors at a spacing of at least 30 feet apart.Protect from frost. Does well in pots. Bottom heat for sprouting. Prefers mesic to dry conditions, well-drained soil, and sun to part shade.sun or partial shadewell drained20 eachTree-like monocot to 25 feet tall and equally as broad. Native to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde and Morocco. Widely cultivated as a curio worthy of the finest botanical gardens. Anyone in the Western US that wants to see a really sweet stand of these comely trees, with their solid trunks and palm-like foliage, can find them at San Diego Botanic Garden. Although a mature stand of these trees in zone 8 look great, they also do very nicely in pots. Surely one of the most unusual trees on earth, they appear to be "not from earth." The flowers are white and deeply perfumed. Dragon tree is one of the several sources for the aromatic, garnet-red resin known as "Dragon's Blood." This is an ancient herbal agent used to treat wounds. It makes a kind of stretchy, antiseptic bandage when dribbled on a cut or abrasion. Dragon's Blood is used for treating a plethora of other dismal maladies including diarrhea, ulcerations and eczema. Historically and within the cultures where this plant is well known, the dragon's blood resin was and is utilized as a kind of panacea. Skinned your knee? Dragon's Blood. HIV? Dragon's blood. Too tired to flee? Dragon's blood…Antiseptic, Fragrance, Ornamental
31Dream Root; Xhosa; White Ways; White Path; African Dream Root; African Dream HerbCaryophyllaceaeSilene carpensis, undulata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:0040 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow the seed directly in the garden in the spring or sow anytime in the greenhouse. Barely cover seed with soil, tamp firmly and keep evvenly moist and warm until germination, which takes 1 to 2 weeks. Thin or transplant to 1 foot apart. I consider effective harvest to be anytime the roots reach a reasonable size (1/8 inch diameter or so), although the literature does specify harvest in the second year.The plant prefers full sun and fast-draining soil but is not particularly picky and can be grown as a troublefree mounding plant in most gardens.full sunwell drained30 eachLow-growing herbaceous perennial 1 to 2 feet tall, native to the cape of South Africa. Softly spreading leafy rosette produces multiple stalks crowned by the pure white flower. Unlike other members of the Silene genus, the calyx is elongated and not particularly inflated. The plant is easy to grow as a wayside attraction, spreads healthily but not invasively, producing many handsome flowers that smell excellently of jasmine and clove. The root of this plant is an "oneirogen," that is a dream inducer. A small piece of the fresh root, chewed at any time during the day or evening, will tend to stimulate vivid, even lucid, dreaming once one falls asleep. This is an effect that the plant seems to produce without a lot of fanfare, and my experimentation seems to indicate that ingesting a small (1/2 inch or so) piece of the fresh root produces a fantastic dreamscape despite the complete lack of waking effect, and no adverse effects or aftereffects, mental or physical. The plant is considered to be on par with the more well-known oneirogen Calea zacatechichi. The Xhosa people of South Africa use the plant to stimulate "prophetic" dreaming during shamanic episodes.Fragrance, Oneirogen, Ornamental
26Empresss Tree; Foxglove TreeScrophulariaceaePaulownia tomentosa (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-12 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant64Like willow, will sprout from cuttings stuck in the ground.

Germination note on this seed: I sowed one packet of out seed on the surface, pressed it in and kept it moist, at 65 degrees F, and ended up with over 100 seedlings after an extended germination time of 64 days. Even I was beginning to wonder. Faith, faith, faith is the most essential ingredient!

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in late winter in a greenhouse at 15 - 20°c. The seed requires light for germination. Fair to good germination. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

CUTTINGS of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Overwinter in a cold frame for its first year and plant out in late spring. Root cuttings 4cm long in December. Good percentage survival.

Requires a deep moderately fertile moisture retentive but well-drained soil in a sunny sheltered position. Plants are tolerant of atmospheric pollution. A very ornamental and fast growing plant.

The flower buds are formed in autumn and can be excited into premature growth during mild winter weather, this growth is then more susceptible to frost damage. The flower buds are hardy to about -15°c when dormant.

Plants, and especially seedlings less than 2 years old, are frost tender when young.

They do not flower reliably in maritime zones, this is probably due to insufficient warmth and dryness in the summer. Branches tend to be brittle. The flowers have a delicate sweet fragrance. Trees can be coppiced annually, they will then produce very vigorous growth with leaves up to 1 metre wide. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
sun or partial shademoist200 eachDeciduous, dioecious tree native to Central and Western China.

This is one of the most signficant of all permaculture trees. It is used extensively in China as a divider between fields. Instant shade in the summer, with leaves as big as elephant ears and much greener. Every year it gets harder for me to get the seed pods, as they occur many feet up in the trees here on our farm (trees that were started from seed some years ago -- these babies grow fast!). Anyhow I was putting off the harvest this year because its dangerous and all, and then finally got up the courage to go out and grab the ladder and a long pole to try to knock down some pods, and when I came to the trees, one of them had BENT OVER ITS TOP and was offering me the pods, completely ripe and ready to go, right there at head level. I said "Thank You" and took some of them. Talk about a giving tree...

Later, I cut some empress tree twigs to use as stakes to hold up impressotags in the greenhouse (for marking plants). I had built a giant, waist-high raised bed out of rocks and dirt, and was marking rows of newly planted seeds (Tulsi, Jiao-gu-lan, White Sage, Spicebush, and others) and I shoved these twigs into the dirt and twisted the tags around the tips, and thought nothing more about it. Then, the seeds started to come up, and I also noticed something a bit surprising -- the buds on the empress tree stakes were swelling, too. I thought, "well, that's all very nice, but of course a twig like that will not spring roots. Wrong again, Mr. Green Man -- not only did they sprout roots, but they started to territorialize quite vigorously. This reminded me of the story of "Robinson Crusoe" that I read as a kid, and how he made a fence of green poles (to protect himself from a footprint in the sand, I seem to remember -- not his) which then sprouted and made an impenetrable fortress. Empress tree would be good for this. Actually, I believe DeFoe wrote this book based on a sailor left behind on one of the ill-fated botanical voyages headed up by no less than the infamous Captain Bligh, later memorialized by several movies usually entitled something like "Mutiny on the Bounty." Breadfruits, it turned out, were not preferred food among the Caribbean slave population...

Afternote: The tree is increasing in popularity, as it has become evident that the fast growth and the great surface area of the leaves makes this one of the most significant "carbon sinks" available on the planet. Removes carbon dioxide from our atmosphere and replaces this gas with breathable oxygen at approximately twice the rate of a "normal" tree. Grow Empress Tree, People, and take a deep breath!

The wood is resistant to insects. This is a fast growing tree, suitable for relatively quick fuel or lumber production.
Astringent, Charcoal, Mulch, Ornamental, Skin, Vermifuge, Warts, Wood
38Indigo Bush; False Indigo Bush; False Indigo; Desert False IndigoFabaceaeAmorpha fruticosa (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-19 00:00:0054 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantScarify seed and sow in spring. Work seedlings up in successively larger pots, and transplant to landscape only after they have filled a gallon pot with roots.Plant prefers full sun and well-drained soils. Does not require trimming back or any other kind of upkeep with the possible exception of weeding (when it is small).full sunwell drained30 eachWoody perennial bush to 10 feet, native to the US. The plant has an open, spreading habit and in my experience stays put where it is planted. Tends to green up in midspring, and flowers soon follow. The plant continues to flower until frost, at which point it loses its leaves and goes into winter dormancy (deciduous). This is a worthy plant for permaculturalists, given to me originally by Rich Pecarrero, the gardener's gardener, who used it in his landscapes as a trouble-free nitrogen fixer and maker of shade and habitat for pollinators and other beneficials. We have planted indigo bush in two places on our farm, and find its long flowering habit, soft and feathery leaves, and handsome fountaining form to be an excellent addition to the landscape.NitrogenInsectiary, Ornamental
42Khella; Toothpick PlantApiaceaeAmmi visnaga (dg fo pf wp)Sow in spring.110Plant prefers full sun, regular watering, average soil.full sunmoist300 eachNative to the Mediterranean. Bears astoundingly long-lasting white umbels, as big as saucers, like a Queen Anne's Lace on steroids. Of course as a certified organic farm we don't put these plants on steroids, and would be willing to testify before congress that we don't, the plants are just naturally large flowered. Tincture or tea of the seeds is a non-stimulating bronchial and vasodilator that is used for treatment of asthma and coronary arteriosclerosis.Bronchiodilator, Ornamental, Vasodilator
252LarkspurRanunculaceaeDelphinium nuttallianum (dg fo pf wp)0 eachOrnamental
253LunariaBrassicaceaeLunaria annua (dg fo pf wp)0 eachOrnamental
51MadderRubiaceaeRubia tinctorum (dg fo pf wp)Sow seed in fall or spring. Sow 1/2 inch deep and tamp securely, then keep evenly moist and in the sun until germination, which may take up to 3 weeks. The seeds may be sown in pots (3 per pot, thin to the best seedling) or direct seeded at 3 inches apart, then transplant or thin to 1 foot apart.Plant prefers very fast draining soil and full sun. It is very drought tolerant and will thrive for weeks in a sunny, well-drained bed without any water at all. The plant will appreciate a trellis, mainly because this will give you, the gardener, space to cultivate around the plants, which stimulates them.full sundrought tolerant20 eachClimbing evergreen perennial native to the Mediterranean and southern Europe. The plant is a classic element of the Medieval garden, completely unique, wending its way along the ground or draping on fence or trellis. The yellow, star-like flowers are produced in the second year after which the roots may be dug.

Madder root contains the anthraquinone pigment alizarin, which is responsible for its popularity as a fine red dyeplant. (The English “red coats” owed their visability to this plant!)

The root is also employed medicinally for treating urinary gravel, dropsy, amenorrhoea and jaundice.
Dye, Ornamental
250Marigold, HarlequinAsteraceaeCalendula officinalis (dg fo pf wp)2013-03-25 00:00:0040 each seeds in 8cc blocks50% germ0 eachInsect Repellant, Ornamental
52MeadowsweetRosaceaeSpirea ulmaria (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-30 00:00:0080 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantThe seeds are slow to germinate and should be kept barely covered, cool, evenly moist, and in part shade. Pot up seedlings and work up to size before transplanting out. This usually takes 6 weeks in the spring greenhouse or in the summer shadehouse.Plant prefers rich, moisture retentive loam, plenty of water, and a part shade to full sun exposure.sun or partial shademoist200 eachHardiness: All temperate Zones Herbaceous perennial to about 4 feet. Native to temperate Europe and Asia. Multiple, arising from a spreading crown with delicate, ferny leaves, the flowering stalks bear masses of creamy flowers smelling like honey and mead. We specialize in this plant, which gives copious quantities of flowers that make a safe and effective analgesic tincture or tea. One of the most revered of all medicinal herbs from the European tradition. Anti-inflammatory and pain relieving, the plant is the source of salycilic acid. The word "asparin" was invented as a conjuncton of the Latin "a spirea" meaning "of Spirea."Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, Fragrance, Ornamental
53Mint, MayanVerbenaceaeLippia dulcis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-19 00:00:0096 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow seed in flats in the early spring and work up the plants to transplantability, then transplant. Plant prefers full sun to part shade. Sow in spring.Protect from frost. We find that the plant prefers fast-draining but nutrient rich soils and drapes admirably over rock walls or other garden features. It will send out runners and root in, but it is severely effected by frost so for most gardeners in the temperate north invasiveness remains more of a goal than a problem.sun or partial shadewell drainedrich50 eachPerennial creeping plant with very showy purple leaves and upright cone-like flowers. Does well in pots. The taste is somewhat like stevia, but with aromatic overtones and no stevia aftertaste. This is a pre-sweetened tea herb, and it is really handsome in the garden, as well.Ornamental, Sweetening
254Nasturtiums, Seven Colour BlendTropaeolaceaeTropaeolum majus (dg fo pf wp)14Seed - sow spring in a pot emmersed to half its depth in water. Germination should take place within a couple of weeks. Prick out seedlings into individual pots whilst they are still small and increase the depth of water gradually until they are submerged. Plant out into a pond in the summer. Cuttings can be taken at any time in the growing season. Virtually any part of the plant, including a single leaf, will form roots if detached from the parent plant[56]. Just put it in a container of water until the roots are well formed and then plant out in shallow water.Pond; Bog Garden;full sunseasonal flooding102 eachFood, Ornamental
57Pepper, African Bird; Pilipili Hoho; Pilipili Kichaa; African Bird Peppers; Birdseye Pepper; Pequin; Piquin; PenguinSolanaceaeCapsicum frutescens (dg fo pf wp)8Start indoors 40 to 50 days prior to the last frost. Thin seedlings to at least 2 inches apart in the flat. Transplant out to garden after the soil has really warmed up. We grow ours in a cloche even in the summer, as cold nights can set them back. The best compost for peppers is higher in phosphorous than nitrogen. Kelp is well-tolerated and makes for outrageous yields.170Peppers prefer a scanty, even water supply, good drainage, full sun, and a long, hot summer. Excellent choice for greenhouse pepper growers or folks growing peppers in the South or Gulf States, as well as in the tropics.full sunwell drained180,000 Scoville Heat Units. Perennial bush pepper. 170 days to maturity, best yields in the second year. These are grown by us on our farm here in Southern Oregon, the culmination of a long learning in the subject of African peppers. The plant itself is comely, 4 feet tall and with a flat top, leaves light green. Peppers are tiny, fiery hot, thin-skinned and easily dried, green at first, turning bright red at maturity (see pictures).

One of the primary reasons for my last trip to Zanzibar was to find a reputable and viable source of "bird peppers." These peppers find their way into local cuisine, to flavor samosas and curries, and they are used worldwide for making sauces, vinegars and medicinal compounds. The flavor is citrusy, smoky, and nutty (if you can get past the incredible hotness of them). Clearly, one way to get past the hotness and appreciate these peppers is to use them sparingly in cuisine -- a little goes a long way!

Medicinally, bird peppers are potently anticarcinogenic, warming, carminative, digestive, and stimulating. Tiny, fiery hot, thin-skinned and easily dried.
Carminative, Ornamental, Seasoning, Stimulant
255Pollinator blend0 eachInsectiary, Ornamental
256Poppy, Peshawar whitePapaveraceaePapaver argemone (dg fo pf wp)0 eachOrnamental, Sedative
60Pulsatilla; Wind Flower; Pasque FlowerRanunculaceaeAnemone pulsatilla (dg fo pf wp)30Seed has short life span. Lay seed on its side in moist medium and expect germination in 30 to 90 days -- very slow going at first, which is typical with seed of plants that are themselves long-lived.In the case of Pulsatilla, I have 15-year-old plants that are going strong. They don't spread very readily, but the clump enlarges every year, self-mulching with its own leaf detritus. Plant prefers full sun to part shade and dryish, well-drained soils. Thick bark mulches are a helpful adjunct.sun or partial shadewell drained30 eachHerbaceous perennial. Native to Europe. The plant is diminutive but brazen, sending up large, showy purple flowers early in the spring, before most plants are half awake, giving way to upright, feathery seedheads straight out of Dr. Suess.

Low doses of the fresh plant tincture are used to calm nervous disorders associated with menopause, PMS or insomnia.

A classic low-dose botanical, the plant is acrid and should be treated with great respect.
Adaptogen, Ornamental, Sedative
11Sage, Chinese Red; Tan-shen; Dan-shenLamiaceaeSalvia miltiorrhiza (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-28 00:00:0057 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow in fast-draining soil in the full sun. Gratifyingly easy germinator -- sow in spring and work up in pots before transplanting to the landscape. Mulch heavily to overwinter, unless you're in Santa Barbara...full sunwell drained20 eachHerbaceous perennial native to Manchuria. This is the official species.

One of the best circulation enhancing herbs. Known as a non-enervating stimulant, it improves blood flow to the extremities without compromising the adrenals. Helps move stuck blood as in atherosclerosis or menstrual woes. I went to a conference where a well-known practitioner of acupuncture said, "This is my favorite Chinese herb and everyone should be taking it." Although my opinion varies somewhat from this statement, still I consider Dan-shen to be an excellent herb for addressing poor circulation issues and also for prevention of stroke, even in individuals who are at high risk of stroke or who have already endured one of these frightening and often debilitating episodes.

Finally, the herb itself is comely, and the roots, as shown in the photo I took for the webpage, look like veins, being bright red, and are an obvious signature of the herb's activity. Excellent choice for herb gardens throughout the temperate north and a show plant for sure.
Ornamental, Stimulant, Vasodilator
8Skullcap, Baical; Huang-qinLamiaceaeScutellaria baicalensis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:0080 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant24Easy cultivation. Sow seed in early spring. Germ. in ~24 days. Prefers well-drained soil in the full sun. Cold hardy. Space plants 12 inches apart. To 12 inches tall. As the plants age they become wider, much like humans in middle age, but unlike humans, the seed they produce becomes increasingly viable the older they get.127The herb is more effective if grown in poor, sandy soil. Relatively easy to start from seed in the spring, the plants prefer a full sun position and deep, dry, well-drained soils. The flowers appear for the first time in the fall of the first year, and after that the plant flowers copiously every summer, producing heady blue or purple blooms for as long as three months before the blossoms give way to the characteristically hooded seed capsules.full sunwell drainedpoor50 eachHerbaceous perennial. Native to the shores of Lake Baikal, Mongolia, Siberia, and the Chihli and Shantung provinces of China. The purple flowers are like schools of dolphin breaking through green waves in a summer sea.

The part used in traditional Chinese medicine is the dried root, which has a bitter and cold energetic. Contains distinctive flavones, specifically baicalin and wogonin, which have antiallergic, diuretic, hypotensive, antibacterial, antiviral, tranquilizing and fever-reducing effects. In practical terms, it is one of the best agents for cooling an infection, and I recommend it especially for people who are travelling and may contract dysentery -- it cures the shits.

This is one of the best Chinese plants to grow organically in America. Not only is it a very striking bedding plant, bearing one of the nicest flowers available from this catalog, but there is on-going demand for the root, which attains harvestable size after only 2 years.

Note: Actually, I'm pretty excited about Baical Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) for treatment of pandemic diseases such as avian flu. My experience is that the root of this plant, which has been used in Chinese medicine for a very long time as the herb Huang-qin, is extremely effective for treating contagious flu-like maladies. There is really no better anti-infection agent in herbalism, to my knowledge.

Added advantages of Huang-qin are

1) lack of side-effects,

2) quick to germinate and easily grown throughout the temperate US

4) pretty

5) and can be harvested in the fall of first or (better) second year 6) no side effects.

Here's a picture of the freshly harvested root -- extremely potent as you can probably tell.

Germination Note: I tested commercial seed I got from China against our organic seed and the chinese seed gave 30% germ and the organic seed gave 95% germ. The organic seed came up in 10 days and the commercial seed came up in 12 days. The organic seed was more vigorous than the commercial seed.

Text from a small article written by Richo that appeared in the AHA Quarterly: The Chinese herb Baical Skullcap, known in Chinese as Huang-qin (Scutellaria baicalensis) has a history of medicinal usage dating back over 2,000 years. The bright yellow roots of this pretty perennial herb are used traditionally to abate diarrhea and dysentery and to enhance liver function in the treatment of hepatitis. They are also an active antibacterial treatment for Staph (Staphylococcus aureus) infection, which is a major cause of secondary infections in hospitals in the US.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, practitioners use Huang-qin as frequently as Westerners use Goldenseal. Many Westerners have yet to appreciate Huang-qin to the extent that it deserves. An added bonus is that the herb is well suited to cultivation in the western states, thriving in gardens all the way from Washington down to Southern California.

Baical skullcap is a low-lying bedding plant, excellent for high-use areas such as next to pathways. After the third year of growth, the roots may be dug and dried for medicinal use. No fancy processing is necessary. The roots can be sliced into sections while fresh and dried in the shade, then made into tincture or tea. Good quality roots are bright yellow, not green or black. Any herb that looks that good in the garden and treats the formidable adversaries hepatitis and staph deserves plenty of attention!
Antiinflammatory, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hypotensive, Ornamental, Sedative
71Sunflower, Fat MamaAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Direct seed in the garden after the soil has warmed up in the spring or early summer. Put sunflowers to the back, as they tend to block access if you put them right in front. You can plant scarlet emperor beans at the same time, and they will run up the stalks. Normally sunflowers are thinned to at least a foot between each plant, and the rows are spaced about 3 feet apart. The fat mama under the right conditions will grow to 9 feet tall.full sunmoist50 eachTall, single-flowered sunflowers with fat heads bearing striped seeds that are the best kind for eating and for feeding to birds. These can also be used for making sunflower oil.

This is one of the best oil plants that can be easily grown by gardeners in the temperate north. Native American peoples extracted the oil by boiling the seeds in large pots, whereupon the oil rose to the surface of the water and could be skimmed off. Think about it. How would you do in your household without cooking oil? It's an ancient commodity, and it behooves us to maintain the ability and the right to make our own.

Of course, all this reductionist information should be taken with a grain of salt -- you can just grow 1 sunflower if you want -- you don't have to put them in rows -- and you can plant them closer together or further apart if you want -- it doesn't matter too much -- and you may find that if you've got great sun and plenty of water and a fertile soil that they top out at 12 feet, or if the soil is poor, with scant water or in the shade, then they may never do too much at all, in which case it might be more productive to just eat the sprouts than to expect a big sunflower. But all in all, these are super duper easy to grow, a good subject for kid's gardens or the kid in all of us, and given reasonable conditions you can expect very impressive results!
Fat, ProteinPhosphorousFood, Forage, Insectiary, Ornamental
70Sunflower, Hopi Black Dye; Black Oil SunflowerAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Horizon Herbs recommends direct-seeding in the spring. Plant a bit close at first, protect from crows, and eat the sprouts. Thin to 2 feet apart.90full sun30 each90-100 days to maturity. Generally single-headed although occasionally poly-headed, the plants are sturdy of stem and consistently dark black of seed. The ray flowers are golden yellow.

The seeds are used by Native Americans for dyeing wool and basketry. Imparts a color-fast light purple. Heirloom variety from Hopi Land, an oil, food, and dye plant that has its roots in ancient prehistory. One of the first domesticated plants, archaeological evidence points to the middle archaic period for the first human harboring of sunflower. The black seeded sunflowers are generally considered to be best for oil, while the striped sunflowers are considered to be best for direct consumption. However, I do admit that I ate the germ test! The seeds are very rich in oil. Native americans ground the seeds and boiled, then skimmed the oil. In native culture, vegetable oil is considered one of the most precious of substances. Also, the seeds are very good for eating, and the sprouts are potently delicious and healing to digestive woes.

Please plant Hopi black dye sunflowers -- this heirloom variety is endangered by all the new polyhead sunflowers that are being developed for selling as pretty flowers in farmer's markets. This one is just as pretty, and it is much more useful.
Fat, ProteinPhosphorousDye, Food, Forage, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental
246Sunflowers, unknown varietyAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Start seeds indoors mid-March or outdoors mid-April to mid-May. Plant 3 cm deep, 15 cm apart.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shademoist0 eachFat, Phosphorous, ProteinFood, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental
257Sweet WilliamCaryophyllaceaeDianthus barbatus (dg fo pf wp)14Seed: sow May/June in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 3 weeks. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer or autumn. The seed can also be sown thinly in an outdoor seedbed in late spring, the young plants being planted out in late spring or the autumn. Cuttings of half-ripe shoots, July in a frame.

Division in September. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Prefers a rich well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position, but succeeds in most soils including dry ones.

A very ornamental plant, its flowers are very attractive to butterflies and moths. The flowers have a strong clove-like scent.

Plants self-sow freely when grown in a suitable position.

Although the Sweet William is a perennial species, it is quite short-lived and degenerates after its second year. It is best treated as a biennial in the garden.


The flowers have a mild flavour and are used as a garnish for vegetable and fruit salads, cakes, desserts, cold drinks etc.
well drainedpoor0 eachInsectiary, Ornamental
74Uva Ursi; Bearberry; KinnikinikEricaceaeArctostaphylos uva-ursi (dg fo pf wp)60Scarify seed vigorously on sandpaper. Fire dependent germinator. Sow in fall, spring, or summer. Space plants 1 foot apart.

Seed: best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak dried seed in boiling water for 10 - 20 seconds or burn some straw on top of them and then stratify at 2 - 5°c for 2 months. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 3 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer.

Cuttings of side shoots of the current season's growth, 5 - 8cm with a heel, August to December in a frame. The cuttings are very slow and can take a year to root.

Division in early spring. Take care because the plant resents root disturbance. Pot the divisions up and keep them in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing away actively.

Layering of long branches in early spring.

Requires a deep moist well-drained light or medium lime-free loam in sun or semi-shade. Shade tolerant but plants produce less fruit when they are grown in the shade. Prefers a cool damp position.

A very ornamental plant, it is sometimes cultivated for its medicinal uses.

There are a number of named varieties developed for their ornamental interest. The form 'Massachusetts' is an especially prostrate, free-flowering and free-fruiting form. 'Anchor Bay', 'Point Reyes' and 'Vulcan's Peak' have all been mentioned as good groundcover forms.

This is one of the first plants to colonize bare and rocky ground and burnt over areas. It is often an indicator of poor soils in the wild. Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their final positions as soon as possible. Hybridizes with other members of this genus, especially A. columbiana.
Plant prefers acid soils, full sun to part shade.partial shademoistloam30 eachHardy to: All zones. Spreading perennial evergreen groundcover. Circumpolar. The herb covers entire hillsides and has been adopted by landscapers for use in the city as a drought tolerant, glossy leaved groundcover. Does well in pots.

Smokeable. Tea or tincture treats mild urinary infections.

Bearberry was commonly used by many native North American Indian tribes to treat a wide range of complaints and has also been used in conventional herbal medicine for hundreds of years, it is one of the best natural urinary antiseptics. The leaves contain hydroquinones and are strongly antibacterial, especially against certain organisms associated with urinary infections. The plant should be used with caution, however, because hydroquinones are also toxic.

The dried leaves are used in the treatment of a variety of complaints. These leaves should be harvested in early autumn, only green leaves being selected, and then dried in gentle heat.

A tea made from the dried leaves is much used for kidney and bladder complaints and inflammations of the urinary tract such as acute and chronic cystitis and urethritis, but it should be used with caution and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The tea is more effective if the urine is alkaline, thus it is best used in combination with a vegetable-based diet.

Externally, a poultice of the infused leaves with oil has been used as a salve to treat rashes, skin sores etc, and as a wash for a baby's head. An infusion of the leaves has been used as an eyewash, a mouthwash for cankers and sore gums and as a poultice for back pains, rheumatism, burns etc.

The dried leaves have been used for smoking as an alternative to tobacco.

The herb should not be prescribed to children, pregnant women or patients with kidney disease. Other uses: fluid retention and bed wetting. Claimed to strengthen the heart muscle and urinary tract and to return the womb to its normal size after childbirth. Treatment should be short (seven days) and used with an alkaline diet. Not recommended for children under 12.

Edible fruit, raw or cooked. Insipid, dry and mealy, it becomes sweeter when cooked. Added to stews etc, it is a good source of carbohydrates.

The fruit can also be used to make a cooling drink or used for preserves etc. It can be dried and stored for later use. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter. A tea is made from the dried leaves.

A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, it does not require a mordant. A grey-brown dye is obtained from the fruit.

The dried fruits are used in rattles and as beads on necklaces etc.

The leaves are a good source of tannin. The mashed berries can be rubbed on the insides of coiled cedar root baskets in order to waterproof them. A good ground-cover for steep sandy banks in a sunny position or in light shade. A carpeting plant, growing fairly fast and carpeting as it spreads. It is valuable for checking soil erosion on watersheds. This is also a pioneer plant in the wild, often being the first plant to colonize burnt-over areas, especially on poor soils.
Antiseptic, Astringent, Beads, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Hypnotic, Kidney, Lithontripic, Ornamental, Pioneer, Poultice, Skin, Soil stabilization, Tannin, Tonic, Waterproofing
76Vervain, BlueVerbenaceaeVerbena hastata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:00other14Sow in the early spring or give 2 weeks cold conditioning by putting seeds in moist medium in a plastic bag in the fridge (not freezer) and then sow in warm soil. Germ in 2 to 4 weeks. Space plants 6 inches apart.

Seed: sow early spring in a greenhouse or cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Basal cuttings in early summer. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 - 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Succeeds in any moderately fertile well-drained but moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -20°c.

Plants prefer full sun to part shade and moist garden soils. Good drainage is not a necessary prerequisite. If there is a concern that the plant will spread, then keep it in a pot, or provide other suitable barriers.sun or partial shademoist200 eachUpright, creeping, self-seeding herbaceous perennial significant in medicine and ritual. Native to the Eastern US. Bright blue flowers on reddish-tinted plants, in multiple, long-lasting, handsome spikes.

Fresh or dried leaf, in tincture or tea, is a bitter remedy for treating indigestion, colds, and fevers. A good ingredient for home brew, it is also a traditional offering plant to honor the garden spirits. The plant will placate ills, real or imagined. Once imagined, ills become real, don't they? It's a quirk of the human condition that most of us would like to escape. Vervain helps you escape.

The leaves and roots are used medicinally; roots are more active than the leaves. The plant is used in the treatment of stomach aches, gravel, worms and scrofula. An infusion of the roots, leaves or seeds has been used in the early stages of fevers. A snuff made from the dried flowers has been used to treat nose bleeds.

Seed are edible cooked. The seed can be roasted and ground into a powder or used whole as a piñole. Pleasantly bitter, some of this bitterness can be removed by leeching the flour. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.
Antidepressant, Antiperiodic, Beverage, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Expectorant, Food, Ornamental, Tonic, Vermifuge, Vulnerary
258Wild HollyhockMalvaceaeAlcea rosea (dg fo pf wp)14Seed: sow April/May or August/September in pots or in situ. Easily grown from seed, which usually germinates in about 2 - 3 weeks at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Division after flowering. Only use rust-free specimens.

Root cuttings in December.

Basal cuttings at almost any time of year.

Succeeds in most soils. Poor soils should be enriched with organic matter. Prefers a heavy rich soil and a sheltered sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -15°c.

A very ornamental plant, it is usually grown as a biennial due to its susceptibility to the fungal disease 'rust'. There are many named varieties. Young plants, and also the young growth in spring, are very attractive to slugs.
sun or partial shademoistclay0 eachThe flowers are demulcent, diuretic and emollient. They are useful in the treatment of chest complaints, and a decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhage etc.

The flowers are harvested when they are open and are dried for later use. The shoots are used to ease a difficult labour. The root is astringent and demulcent. It is crushed and applied as a poultice to ulcers. Internally, it is used in the treatment of dysentery. The roots and the flowers are used in Tibetan medicine, where they are said to have a sweet, acrid taste and a neutral potency. They are used in the treatment of inflammations of the kidneys/womb, vaginal/seminal discharge, and the roots on their own are used to treat loss of appetite.

The seed is demulcent, diuretic and febrifuge.

Edible: young leaves, raw or cooked. A mild flavour, but the texture leaves something to be desired. They have been used as a pot-herb, though they are not particularly palatable. They can also be chopped up finely and added to salads.

Inner portion of young stems, raw. Flower petals and flower buds, raw. Added to salads.

A nutritious starch is obtained from the root.

A refreshing tea is made from the flower petals.

A fibre obtained from the stems is used in papermaking. The fibres are about 1.9mm long. The stems are harvested in late summer, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be removed. The fibres are cooked with lye for 2 hours and then ball milled for 3 hours or pounded with mallets. The paper is light tan in colour.

The flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost.

The seed contains 12% of a drying oil.

The red anthocyanin constituent of the flowers is used as a litmus.

A brown dye is obtained from the petals.
Antiinflammatory, Astringent, Beverage, Compost, Demulcent, Diuretic, Dye, Emollient, Febrifuge, Fibre, Litmus, Oil, Ornamental
78Wilde Dagga; Wild Dagga; Lion’s Tail; Lion’s Ears; UmunyaneLamiaceaeLeonotus leonurus (dg fo pf wp)7Sow seeds in a flat or pot. Barely cover, tamp well, keep evenly moist, warm and in the light until germination, which occurs in 1 to 3 weeks. The seedlings are valuable and so normally not thinned -- grow at close spacing for a few weeks until the second set of true leaves has formed, then prick into pots, and then after they grow out a bit more, transplant outdoors to 3 feet apart. In cold weather areas, you may wish to keep this plant in potted culture.Plant prefers full sun to part shade and regular garden or wayside conditions. Since the stems can become quite woody, it holds up well to traffic and random abuse. Well-drained, slightly alkaline soils seem to be the best choice, although almost any soil will work as long as the summer is hot and long. The plant is quite drought tolerant. sun or partial shadedrought tolerantgarden30 eachHerbaceous perennial, may become a woody perennial in zone 8 and warmer. When growing in colder zones, these can be very late to re-emerge from the woody stumps of the previous year's growth. Flowers in the late season on multiple upright stalks, occuring as long-tubed, hairy appendages emerging from the globose, whorled orbs. Hummingbirds become frenzied around this plant, and I've had them fly in through the door of the greenhouse (and risk hitting their little heads) in order to repeatedly visit a single flower that was making an out-of-season display.

Easily one of the showiest medicinals of all time. Native to South Africa and planted in discriminating botanical gardens worldwide. When encountered on garden path, it is a breathtaker. Speaking of taking a breath, this is a smokeable euphoric, the dried leaves and buds being used throughout history by the native peoples of South Africa as a calming, reality shifting smoke. Decoction or tea of leaves and roots also used traditionally as an external wash against snakebite, other bites and stings (and believe me, in Africa, this is useful!), boils, eczema, skin diseases, itching, and muscular cramps. The same type of preparation is used internally for treating coughs, colds, influenza, bronchitis, high blood pressure and headaches. The plant is powerfully endowed with marrubiin and related compounds.

Please note: For a similar display (and entheogenic effect) in colder areas, choose "Cordao," (Leonotis nepetafolia) which is the annual counterpart of wilde dagga and also has a wide distribution in East and Southern Africa.
Analgesic, Antidepressant, Insectiary, Ornamental

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